The programme will be implemented in 18 counties namely: Kajiado, Homa Bay, Laikipia, Wajir, Garissa, Tana River, Kitui, Makueni, Kisumu, Machakos, Kiambu, Mombasa, Taita Taveta, Kwale, Kilifi, Lamu and Meru. 3 institutions (Kenya Forestry Research institute (KEFRI), Tana & Athi Rivers Development Authority (TARDA) and Coast Development Authority (CDA) are the overall Executing Entities while 8 others (CARITAS, NASARU Women Group, Kenyatta University, World Vision, ADRA Kenya, Horn Aid, VIRED International, Kenya Red Cross) are the Sub-Executing Entities all of which are tasked with the implementation of the programme. The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) will act as a conduit for finances from the Adaptation Fund. It will provide overall supervision, leadership and monitoring of programme implementation, approving work plans and reviewing progress.
Budget transparency in terms of specific allocations for the Executing and Sub-Executing Entities has not been explicitly provided publicly which could hinder effective monitoring. The same applies for the contract agreement between the Adaptation Fund and NEMA and the local level contracts between NEMA and the Executing Entities.
In 2001, under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Adaptation Fund was established. Its objective is to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are signatories of the Kyoto Protocol and that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of the climate change. The fund, which began operating in 2008, is one of the only funds in the world specifically dedicated to the cause of adaptation, and is the pioneer institution offering direct access modality to developing countries through National Implementing Entities (NIEs). Through Direct Access, developing countries are able to access financial resources through accredited NIEs without going through intermediaries such as Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) or UN Agencies. After undergoing a rigorous assessment process, Kenya was accredited in March 2012 through NEMA becoming the 12th NIE globally.
To access funds, national institutions are accredited against requirements set out in four key areas including legal status; financial management & integrity; institutional capacity and transparency, self-investigative powers and anti-corruption measures and policies and mechanisms to monitor and address complaints about environmental or social harms caused by projects. Accreditation is for a period of 5 years after which the accreditation status of the institution is reviewed.
The Adaptation Fund draws resources from 2% of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) issued under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol and through voluntary pledges from donor governments. The World Bank serves as the interim Trustee of the Fund.
Public awareness about the programme remains minimal countrywide. Many stakeholders are not aware of the programme including its structure and progress and the information is not publicly available. Also lacking is information on specific responsibility and working areas for the 11 institutions implementing the programme. More information needs to be made publicly available to enhance accountability and transparency in the programme. This is a shared responsibility by all institutions involved in implementation.
NEMA has also been accredited by the Green Climate Fund and is in the preparatory stages of tapping into the Fund. As NEMA readies to access finances from the Green Climate Fund, there remains a great need to ensure that the institutional capacity is enhanced to ensure seamless flow of climate finance to the Executing Entities and ultimately to the beneficiaries. Lessons learnt and challenges experienced in the course of implementation of the Adaptation Fund should form a basis for improvement in project implementation, financial disbursement and management and overall project supervision.